rural_1.GIF (63965 bytes) This group of research deals with Northern Thai farmers, their farming systems, rural resources and environment emphasizing the socio-economic aspects and interdisciplinary attempts in agricultural systems research.

 

farmers’ decision making gender roles in agriculture
farming systems research small scale livestock farming systems
participatory research and extension forest resource use
property rights and land tenure  

trired3.gif (203 bytes)Farmers’ Decision Making

Issues: How farmers are making decisions regarding:

Crop choice Various research studies in the Chiang Mai Valley and the lowland Northern Thailand confirmed that the Northern farmers are profit-maximisers when dealing with cash crops (Shinawatra, et al, 1986). Simple linear programming models can be used to approximate farmers’ decision in these circumstances (Shinawatra, 1988).

Variety choice With regards to rice, variety choice is still dominated by household consumption preferences. Rice variety mostly chosen by farmers in the Chiang Mai Valley was found to be predominantly RD6, and San Pa Tong glutinous variety. Some indigenous varieties were still found in problem areas but farmers used mostly improved rice varieties instead of indigeneous ones. Varietal diversity has been rapidly eroded. (Shinawatra and Woodtikarn, 1994)

Resource management In an upland environment, shifting cultivation has been much altered. How different groups of Akha upland farmers responded to those changes. Much differentiation of farmers’ management strategies were found by Thong Ngam, et al. (1995)

(see ref I: decision making)  up5.gif (144 bytes)


trired3.gif (203 bytes) Gender Roles in Agriculture

farmer3.jpg (13211 bytes) Different aspects of gender studies in agriculture are explored in our Center. These include differential roles of men and women in an upland farming system in Chiang Mai (Shinawatra, Tongsiri and Pitackwong, 1987), in dairy farming in Northern Thailand (Ekasingh, el al. 1997), women’s roles in extension (Shinawatra and Connell, 1991), in technological change (Shinawatra, Diowwilai and Bangliang, 1992, Jaisa-ard, 1980), in migration (Padermchai and Shinawatra, 1992), etc.

( see ref II : gender roles)  up5.gif (144 bytes)


trired3.gif (203 bytes) Farming Systems Research

The Multiple Cropping Center has much research on farming systems research (FSR). This FSR takes many forms e.g. participatory research, client-oriented agricultural research, area analysis, rural rapid appraisal, on-farm trials, adoption studies, impact assessment of FSR, etc. While new agricultural technologies have been tested, impact assessment of FSR was also conducted by Shinawatra, et al (1992). An impact assessment of FSR was conducted in Thailand in Dok Khum Tai District, Phayao province. Mungbean after rice and direct seeding rice were evaluated. It was found that technology adoption depending on the socio-economic conditions of the area. As labour was scarce, direct seeding rice became especially attractive with an adoption of mechanical seeder. As such the impact of FSR technology was felt a few years after the FSR project ended. A review of the methodological difficulties in conducting impact assessment was also made by Shinawatra (1992b). Systems approaches to watershed research can be found in Trebuil, et al (1995)

Thong-Ngam and Thong-Ngam (1998) did a study of an evaluation of farmers’ adoption of Soil and Water Conservation (SWC) in Mae Ai District, Chiang Mai Province among Lahu. The adoption performance of grass strips was 40.5 percent of the total number of farmers. The reasons why the farmers established the grass strips were reportedly the prevention of soil erosion and the introduction by the officials. The farmers that did not adopt grass strips claimed that it was not useful and no officials introduced them etc.,

This study analyses farmers’ adoption of grass strips by using Multiple Regression, Least square (LS) and Maximum Likelihood Estimate (MLE) revealed that the factors that positively impacted the adoption were the frequency of meeting between the officials and farmers within a month, rating score of knowledge/realization of soil and water conservation, owning of terracing paddy fields occupied. The number of years that the farmers had held the land was negatively influenced the farmers' adoption of grass strips.

The study found that growing paddy rice provided the best economic return. Soybean production with grass strip produced better return than without., while maize without grass strips performed better. Growing crops in grass strip fields used less input than in non-grass strip fields. (Thong Ngam and Thong Ngam, 1998)

(see ref III: FSR)  up5.gif (144 bytes)


Small-Scale Livestock Farming Systems

Gender Roles and Socio-Economic Aspects of Dairy Farming in Northern Thailand. This research project was funded by the Thailand Research Fund (TRF) for the period of 1996-1997. It was part of nation-wide dairy farming research and development. This piece of research dealt with the roles and potentials of male and female farmers in dairy farming, with particular emphasis on production efficiency and quality of life aspects. It in particular explored the socio-economic aspects of dairy farming with an added emphasis on the roles of women in this sector. The project is a joint collaboration between the Multiple Cropping Center, the Department of Agricultural Economics, the Department of Animal Science, Chiang Mai University and the National Dairy Research and Training Center (Ekasingh, et al, 1997a,b). Optimal credit needs of dairy farmers were also explored in Tanya Limkhumduang, et al (1998).

Socio-Economics Aspects of Animal Disease Prevention in Northern Thailand. This was a project with the Department of Agricultural Economics, the Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University and the Department of Economics, University of Queensland, and Thailand Animal Disease Prevention Center, Department of Livestock. The project summarized small livestock farmers’ knowledge, understanding and health care of their livestock. Four villages in 4 districts of Chiang Mai Province, were selected for this study during 1994-95 (Thani, et al, 1996. 1997a, b)

(see ref IV : Livestock)  up5.gif (144 bytes)


trired3.gif (203 bytes) Participatory research and extension

Participatory approach to both research and extension is proved to be beneficial towards technology generation and adoption. Using an example of wheat, a new crop in Northern Thailand, participatory research and extension facilitates the spread of wheat growing among small farmers. Institutional linkage with Thai Department of Agriculture and Department of Agricultural Extension was attempted with some degree of success. For more information, see Wannapee, et al (1993), Sukanuantapong, et al (1994) and Department of Agricultural Extension, Department of Agriculture and Multiple Cropping Center, Chiang Mai University (1995).

(see ref V: Participatory extension and research)  up5.gif (144 bytes)


trired3.gif (203 bytes) Forest Resource Use

tree5.jpg (14775 bytes)   As part of the study on Northern Thai small watershed studies, a research has been conducted on forest resource use, namely land, water, non-timber products especially fuelwood use and labor. Watchan, part of the Mae Chaem watershed and Kae Noi, part of the Mae Taeng watershed, are study sites. Results of this research are still in process (see M. Ekasingh, et al, 1995 and Shinawatra and Krummel, 1997.) A further research is planned using Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) for farming systems in Wat Chan area with a collaboration with International Center of Research for Agroforestry (ICRAF), Thailand office under their Alternative to Slash and Burn (ASB) Project.

(see ref VI: forest use) up5.gif (144 bytes)


trired3.gif (203 bytes) Property rights and land tenure

Some research is done on the issue of land tenure in the Chiang Mai Valley where it was found that there was widespread share cropping system in the area. The traditional one-half share cropping was giving way to one-third share cropping and fixed cash or kind rental arrangement due to Land Rent Law and an increasing scarcity of labor in farming (Vimuktalop and Shinawatra, 1989).

Land use rights in forest areas of Lower Northern Thailand and their history were explored in Shinawatra, Ramitanon, and Tongsiri (1992) and Ekasingh, Ramitanon and Tongsiri (1997). A review on this issue was done by Shinawatra (1994, 1997)

(see ref VII: property rights)  up5.gif (144 bytes)


References:

trired3.gif (203 bytes) I. Farmers’ Decision Making.

Shinawatra, Benchaphun , Pichit Thani and Jamaree Pitackwong. 1986. Farmers' Decision Making : A Case Study of the Chiang Mai Valley (1985/86), Agricultural Economics Report No. 17, Multiple Cropping Center, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, 1986 (co-authors: P. Thani and J. Pitackwong). Also in Journal of Economics at Thammasart (Warasarn Setasart Thammasart) 5 ( March ), 1987 : 129-166.

Shinawatra, Benchaphun 1988. Representative Farm Decision Making Model for Oilseed Crop Development, Agricultural Economics Report No. 19, Multiple Cropping Center, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, 1988. Also in Journal of Agriculture (Warasarn Kaset) 4 (1), 1988 : 69-81.

Shinawatra, Benchaphun and Patanun Woodtikarn. 1994. "Farmers' Choice of Rice Varieties in the Chiang Mai Valley". Journal of Agricultural Economic Research 16 (51), 1994: 37-54. (in Thai).

Thong Ngam, Charal, Benchaphun Shinawatra, Sean Healy and Guy Trebuil., 1995. "Farmers’ Resource Management and Decision-Making in the Context of Changes in the Thai Highlands." Paper presented at the Regional Symposium on Montane Mainland Southeast Asia in Transition, 12-16 November, 1995. Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Thong Ngam, Charal, Benchaphun Shinawatra, Sean Healy and Guy Trebuil. 1997. "Resource Management and Decision Making in the Thai Highlands." Journal of Contemporary Asia, 27(2): 179-197. uparrow.gif (112 bytes)

trired3.gif (203 bytes) II. Gender roles in agriculture

Shinawatra, Benchaphun, B. Tongsiri and J. Pitackwong. 1987. Differential Roles of Men and Women in the Farming Systems of amphoe Phroa, Chiang Mai, Thailand, Agricultural Economics Report No. 18, Multiple Cropping Center, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, 1987. Also in the Proceedings of the Conference on Women Studies in Nothern Thailand, Chiang Mai, 25-26 August 1988.

Shinawatra, Benchaphun and John Connell. 1991. Wheat in Thailand. Multiple Cropping Center, Faculty of Agriculture. Chiang Mai University, 1991. A gender analysis case study. (in Thai and English)

Shinawatra, Benchaphun and Chuenchen Diowwilai and Supachai Bangliang, 1992. "Evaluating the Impact of Technologies on Women: A Case Study in Amphoe Phroa, Chiang Mai, Thailand" Journal of the Asian Farming Systems Association 1(3), 1992: 303-316.

Padermchai, Patcharawan and Benchaphun Shinawatra. 1992. "Female Out-migration in Amphoe Dok Kham Tai, Phayao Province, Thailand and Its Impact on Rice Farming Systems." Paper presetned in the International Workshop on Gender Concerns in Rice Farming, October 20-25, 1992. Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Ekasingh, Benchaphun, Kuson Thong-Ngam, Boonlom Chiva-Israkul, Boonserm Chiva-Israkul and Somkid Promma. 1997. Roles, Efficiency and Training of Male and Female Dairy Farmers in the North. Chiang Mai: Multiple Cropping Center. (in Thai)   uparrow.gif (112 bytes)

trired3.gif (203 bytes) III. Farming Systems Research

Shinawatra, Benchaphun and C. Sukapong, P. Woodtikarn , P. Deundao, P. Padermchai and B. Ontuam 1992..Assessing the Impact of Farming Systems Research in Thailand. In Proceedings of the 9th Thailand National Farming Systems Seminar, Phuket, March 24-27, 1992

Shinawatra, Benchaphun 1994b. "Rethinking about Impact Assessment of Farming Systems Research". Journal of the Asian Farming Systems Association. 2(2), 1994:247-256.

Trebuil, Guy, Suan Pheng Kam, Koen Van Keer, Benchaphun Shinawatra and Francis Turkelboom. 1995. "Systems Approaches at Field, Farm and Watershed Levels in Diversifying Upland Agroecosystems: Towards Comprehensive Solutions to Farmers’ Problems." Paper presented at the 2nd International Symposium on Systems Approaches for Agricultural Development: "Meeing the Challenge to Balance Required Increases in Food Production with Environmental Protection." IRRI, Los Ba˝os, Laguna, Philippines, 6-8 December 1995.

Thong Ngam, Kuson and Charal Thong Ngam. 1998. "Socio economic Evaluation of conservation Agricultural System on Sloping Highland in Chiang Mai Province." Agricultural Economic Report No. 45. Multiple Cropping Center. Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University. (in Thai)  uparrow.gif (112 bytes)

trired3.gif (203 bytes) IV. Small Scale Livestock Farming Systems

Thani, Pichit, Tusanee Apichartsrungkoon, Benchaphun Ekasingh and Laxami Worachai. 1997a. "Socio-Economic Status and Animal Disease Prevention and Treatment of Farmers in Chiang Mai." Journal of Agriculture. 13(2): 171-180.

Thani, Pichit, Tusanee Apichartsrungkoon, Benchaphun Ekasingh and Laxami. 1996. Socio-Economic Conditions of Farmers and Animal Disease Prevention and Treatment. Chiang Mai: Departments of Agricultural Economics and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University. (in Thai)

Thani, Pichit, Tusanee Apichartsrungkoon, Benchaphun Ekasingh and Laxami. 1997b. "Socio-Economic Conditions of Farmers and Animal Disease Prevention and Treatment." Research Papers and Reports in Animal Health Economics No. 40, the Department of Economics, the University of Queensland, Australia.

Ekasingh, Benchaphun, Kuson Thong-Ngam, Boonserm Chiva-Israkul, Boonlom Chiva-Israkul and Somkid Promma. 1997a. Socio-Economic and Farming Systems of Dairy Farmers in the North. Chiang Mai: Multiple Cropping Center. (in Thai)

Ekasingh, Benchaphun, Kuson Thong-Ngam, Boonlom Chiva-Israkul, Boonserm Chiva-Israkul and Somkid Promma. 1997b. Roles, Efficiency and Training of Male and Female Dairy Farmers in the North. Chiang Mai: Multiple Cropping Center. (in Thai)

Limkhumduang, Tanya, Benchaphun Ekasingh, Boonserm Cheva-Isarakul and Kamol Ngamsomsuke. 1998. "Dairy Farmer’s Productivity and Capital Need in Chiang Mai Province." Agricultural Economic Report No. 46. Multiple Cropping Center. Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University.  uparrow.gif (112 bytes)

trired3.gif (203 bytes) V. Participatory research and extension.

Wunnapee, Phetcharat., Chawalvut Chainuwati, Benchaphun Shinawatra,Vichian Petpisit, Nakorn Sangplung, Kanok Rerkasem and John Connell. 1993. "Development of A Participatory Extension Approach for the Use in Diverse Production Environment." FAO Farm Management Notes. Regular Issue No. 16. April 1993.

Department of Agricultural Extension, Department of Agriculture and Multiple Cropping Center, Chiang Mai University. 1995. Participatory Extention Project: An Action-Research Project to Examine Potential for the Development of Participatory Procedures for a National Extension Institution. (1992-1994). Final Technical Report for International Research and Development Center Project Profile : No.91-0231.

Sukanuntapong, Chalerm., Chawalvut Chawalwut, Benchaphun Shinawatra, Vichian Petpisit, Nakorn Sangplung, Kanok Rerkasem, John Connell and Somsak Boonwiroj. 1994. "A Strategy to Foster Institutionalization of Farmers' Participation for Agricultural Change in Thailand." Paper presented at the 3rd Asian Farming System Symposium, Manila, the Philippines, November 7-11, 1994. uparrow.gif (112 bytes)

trired3.gif (203 bytes) VI. Forest Resource Use

Ekasingh, Methi, Benchaphun Shinawatra, Tavorn Onpraphai, Panomsak Promburom and Chanchai Sangchyoswat. 1995. "Role of Spatial Information in Assessing Resources of Highland Communities in Northern Thailand." Paper presented at the Regional Symposium on Montane Mainland Southeast Asia in Transition, 12-16 November 1995, Chiang Mai Thailand.

Ekasingh, Methi, Benchaphun Shinawatra, Tavorn Onpraphai and Panomsak Promburom. 1996. "The Evaluation of Highland Communities’ Natural Resouse Base : A Landscape Level." In Proceedings of the 11th National Conference on Farming Systems, 12-15 March 1996, Phetburi. Bangkok: Department of Agriculture.

Trebuil, Guy, Suan Pheng Kam, Koen Van Keer, Benchaphun Shinawatra and Francis Turkelboom. 1995. "Systems Approaches at Field, Farm and Watershed Levels in Diversifying Upland Agroecosystems: Towards Comprehensive Solutions to Farmers’ Problems." Paper presented at the 2nd International Symposium on Systems Approaches for Agricultural Development: "Meeting the Challenge to Balance Required Increases in Food Production with Environmental Protection." IRRI, Los Ba˝os, Laguna, Phillippines, 6-8 December 1995.

Shinawatra, Benchaphun and John R. Krummel. 1997. "Fuelwood and the Energy Transition in the Highlands of Northern Thailand". Agricultural Economic Report No. 41.Multiple Cropping Center.

Ekasingh, Benchaphun, Chalardchai Ramitanond, and Benjavan Tongsiri. 1997. "Evolution of Forest Occupancy : the Case of the Lower North." Agricultural Economic Report No. 42. Multiple Cropping Center. Chiang Mai University. uparrow.gif (112 bytes)

trired3.gif (203 bytes) VII. Property rights and land tenure.

Vimuktalob, Chotirat and Benchaphun Shinawatra. 1989 "Land Tenure System in the Chiang Mai Valley", Journal of Agricultural Economics Research. 12 (April-June), 1989.

Shinawatra, Benchaphun., Charlardchai Ramitanond and Benjavan Tongsiri. 1992. "The Evolution of Forest Occupancy in the Lower North of Thailand". In Chermsak Pinthong. (ed) The Evolution of Forest Occupancy in Thailand. Bangkok: Local Development Institution. 1992. (in Thai)

Ekasingh, Benchaphun., Charlardchai Ramitanond and Benjavan Tongsiri. 1997. "Evolution of Forest Occupancy: a case of the Lower North". Agricultural Economic Report No. 42. Multiple Cropping Center, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University. (in Thai)

Shinawatra, Benchaphun. 1994. "Property Rights, Institutions, and Access to Resources: Impacts on Sustainable Intensification in Northern Thailand." Paper presented in the Conference on Agricultural Sustainability, Growth and Poverty Alleviation in East and Southeast Asia, October 3-6, 1994, Kuala Lumpur.

Shinawatra, Benchaphun. 1997. "Property Rights, Institutions, and Access to Resources: Impacts on Sustainable Intensification in Northern Thailand." In Mark W. Rosegrant, Julie Witchover, Roberta V. Gerpacio, and Claudia Ringler. Agricultural Sustainability, Growth, and Poverty Alleviation in East and Southeast Asia: Issues and Policies. Proceedings of the International Conference held from 3-6 October, 1994 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Institute of Strategic and International Studies (ISIS) and Zentralstelle fur Ernńhrung und Landwirtschaft (ZEL). uparrow.gif (112 bytes)

(for more information, contact bench@chiangmai.ac.th)


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